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      EVs Will Increase India’s Dependency on China for Raw Materials and Battery Production : Report

      Manufacturing of electric vehicles (EVs) in India will increase its dependence on China for raw materials, mineral processing, and battery production, as per a report of by economic think tank GTRI.

      The Global Trade Research Initiative (GTRI) also said that there is a need for life cycle impact evaluation for the EV sector.

      EVs result in the release of pollutants during battery making, disposal, and charging, and about 70% of materials use to manufacture EVs in India are import from China and a few other countries, as per report.

      As per report :

      “EVs will increase India’s dependence on China for raw materials, mineral processing, and battery production,”.

      China has bought the largest lithium mines in Australia and South America.

      It processes more than 60% of the lithium produced globally.

      It also processes 65% of cobalt and 93% of manganese.

      China makes three out of four batteries produce globally, As per report, adding over 100 Chinese battery units make 60% of the cathodes and 80% of the anodes used in lithium-ion cells.

      The report point out that EVs have implications on jobs and pollution and it identified 13 issues relate to interests of consumers, industry, and the government for an evaluation.

      The issues include high prices of these vehicles, fitness of EVs for a long journey, performance under extreme weather, increase in power demand, less fit for public transport, increase dependence on China, no reduction in pollution, disruption of the auto component sector, and inadequate availability of lithium.

      GTRI co-founder Ajay Srivastava said :

      “EVs with lithium-ion batteries are at best a work-in-progress innovation. We must understand the long term impact of EVs on jobs, pollution levels, imports, and economic growth,”.

      On the pollution issue, it explain that a typical 500kg lithium car battery uses 12kg of lithium, 15kg of cobalt, 30kg of nickel, 44kg of copper, and 50kg of graphite.

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      It also uses about 200kg of steel, aluminium, and plastics.

      Mining extraction, transport, and processing of these materials release pollutants and CO2, leading to air and water pollution, as per report.

      As per report :

      “The battery’s life is 6-7 years; after which it needs to be recycled. Recycling is complex as the battery contains many toxic materials that are challenging to dispose of. Firms promoting EVs talk about zero tail-pipe emissions but are silent on mining and disposal costs,”.

      Further, report said that EVs will only increase pollution as the batteries are charged from coal-generate electricity.

      India generates 60% of electricity from fossil fuels like coal and petroleum, and of this, coal accounts for 50%.

      As per report :

      “Electric cars only make sense when most power comes from renewable energy,”

      It also said that EVs will disrupt India’s auto-component industry with 700 organise and 10,000 unorganise manufacturers.

      It also said that EVs will end the existence of lakhs of shops and garages selling spare parts, changing oil, and servicing vehicles.

      As per report said that EV is not a global phenomenon and the push for it is coming from Europe, which is introducing the Carbon Border Adjustment mechanism to protect their polluting industry and disrupt global trade.

      As per report :

      “There is no standardisation in the charging port for electric scooters. Each firm issues its charging port model. Unless the charging ports are standardise, each maker has to set up separate charging infra across the country,”.

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